We have considered outcomes as developments in knowledge, attitudes, skills and practices of specified actors as a result of project outputs. We have gone further to consider that the change is far reaching when it extends from individuals to the groups, communities, and organizations they interact with, to wider or deeper institutional and national policies. This includes setting norms and enforcement systems that support the change. Figure 1 shows the relationship of such change in projects that were expected by a academic and research teams. The more the transformation is to the right and bottom of the framework the more substantive the outcome.
Figure 1. The range of supported outcomes, tracked and documented by research and academic project teams